Unicameral Bone Cyst

Unicameral bone cysts are developmental anomalies of the physis where there is a transient failure of ossification of physeal cartilage and cyst formation…..

Piriformis Syndrome

Yeoman first described the relationship between the sciatic nerve and piriformis muscle and Robinson coined the term ‘piriformis syndrome’…..

Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis(SCFE)

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis refers to the atraumatic separation of the epiphysis in the epiphyseal plate of the femoral neck with displacement of the femoral head, usually in a medial and dorsal direction, during the pubertal growth spurt……

Congenital Muscular Torticollis

Congenital muscular torticollis or congenital wry neck, is the most common cause of torticollis in the infant and young child, presenting at a median age of 2 months

Rotator cuff Tears

The primary mechanical function of the rotator cuff is to balance the force couples about the glenohumeral joint to provide a stable fulcrum of motion and functional glenohumeral kinematics…..


POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY   PET allows the visualisation of the metabolic activity of disease. Helps in diagnosis of malignant tumours and their recurrence. Also helps in the staging of tumours and the monitoring of their response to therapy, and in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. The positron-emitting tracers may be used to define: Amino-acid uptake (11C-methionine; […]


CONGENITAL SUBLUXATION OF THE WRIST (MADELUNG’S DEFORMITY) Pathogenesis (Brailsford): Stunted development of inner third of the growth cartilage at the lower end of the radius, due to still unknown cause. Growth of the outer two-thirds continues and, as a result, the radial shaft is bowed backwards, the interosseous space is increased, there is overgrowth of […]

Fibrous Dysplasia

Fibrous Dysplasia originally described by Lichtenstein in 1938 and by Lichtenstein and Jaffe in 1942 represent approximately 5% to 7% of benign bone tumors A sporadic disorder of osseous and fibrous tissue development characterised by postzygotic mutation of GNAS1 gene coding for stimulatory G protein. Analysis of the Gs ? subunit in patients with fibrous […]

Intercondylar Elbow Fractures

INTERCONDYLAR FRACTURES OF THE ELBOW Mechanism of injury: Is by a force directed towards an elbow which is flexed > 90° which causes the ulna to drive against the trochlea Riseborough and Radin Classification • Type I: Nondisplaced • Type II: Slight displacement with no rotation between the condylar fragment. • Type III: Displacement with […]

Calcaneal Fractures

© Hitesh Gopalan U Excerpts from “Orthopaedic Principles- A Review” CALCANEUM fractures Mechanism of Injury: fall from height or motor vehicle accident Classification: a.    Extra Articular Fractures • Anterior process fractures • Tuberosity fractures • Medial process fractures • Sustentacular fractures • Body fractures not involving the subtalar articulation b. Intra Articular Fractures  (Essex Lopresti […]

Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis

PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS (PVNS) Excerpts from “Orthopaedic Principles- A Review” © Hitesh Gopalan U Definition: – Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a slow growing lesion of uncertain etiology arising from the synovial membrane, characterized by villous and nodular overgrowths of the synovial membrane of the bursa or the tendon sheath. – The appendicular skeleton, especially […]

Acromioclavicular Joint Injuries

ACROMIOCLAVICULAR JOINT INJURIES © Hitesh Gopalan U Mechanism of Injury: 1. Direct force is the commonest cause due to fall on the shoulder with arm adducted 2. It can also occur with indirect force due to fall on the outstretched hand Features of Acromioclavicular joint: • Is a diarthrodal (synovial) joint • Horizontal stability is […]